The incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasing annually. Studies have suggested that psychosocial disorders may be linked to the development of GERD. However, studies evaluating the association between psychosocial disorders and GERD have been inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that evaluated the association between psychosocial disorders and GERD.
We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases until October 17, 2020. Pooled OR with 95% CI and subgroup analyses were calculated using a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify the sources of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis by one-study removal was used to test the robustness of our results.
This meta-analysis included 1 485 268 participants from 9 studies. Studies using psychosocial disorders as the outcome showed that patients with GERD had a higher incidence of psychosocial disorders compared to that in patients without GERD (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.87-3.54; = 93.8%; < 0.001). Studies using GERD as an outcome showed an association between psychosocial disorders and an increased risk of GERD (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.42-3.51; = 97.1%; < 0.001). The results of the subgroup analysis showed that the non-erosive reflux disease group had a higher increased risk of anxiety than erosive reflux disease group (OR, 9.45; 95% CI, 5.54- 16.13; = 12.6%; = 0.285).
Results of our meta-analysis showed that psychosocial disorders are associated with GERD; there is an interaction between the two.