Studies have suggested that women are more prone to reproductive disorders than men. But whether reproductive disorders in women are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the association between reproductive factors in women and the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
This umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analysis included a total of 32 reviews evaluating women of reproductive age, with exposures being fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The primary endpoint of the study was the incidence of cardiovascular disease in women, including heart failure, stroke, ischemic heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease.
During an average follow-up of 7-10 years, women with reproductive conditions were found to be at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The analysis suggested that the risk of composite cardiovascular disease was twofold for pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, and stillbirth, 1.5-19-fold for gestational diabetes, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, gestational hypertension, and less than 1.5-fold for polycystic ovary syndrome, menopausal symptoms, and miscarriage. The risk of heart failure was fourfold with pre-eclampsia.
The research concluded that reproductive complications and diseases were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in young, reproductive women. It also found that the risk of cardiovascular disease varied significantly with the type of complication.