Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels have been reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and MetS in Thai postmenopausal women.
A total of 340 postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study. The concentration of 25(OH)D, lipid profiles, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, blood pressure, and demographic and anthropometric parameters were measured. Subjects were divided into the hypovitaminosis D and vitamin D sufficiency groups. The association of serum 25(OH)D levels with MetS in postmenopausal women was analyzed using multivariate regression analysis.
Waist circumference, total cholesterol levels, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in hypovitaminosis D than in vitamin D sufficiency (p < 0.05). The prevalence of MetS, central obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in hypovitaminosis D was significantly higher than in vitamin D sufficiency (p < 0.05). In the multivariable logistic regression model, hypovitaminosis D was associated with MetS (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.12-3.04, p = 0.015), central obesity (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.20-4.85, p = 0.014), and hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.12-3.26, p = 0.018) compared with vitamin D sufficiency after adjusting for covariates. Serum vitamin D concentrations were significantly lower in the MetS group than in the non-MetS group (p = 0.016) and decreased with an increasing number of MetS components (p for trend = 0.034).
Hypovitaminosis D was associated with an increased risk of MetS, central obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Thai postmenopausal women.

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