The effect of aldehyde exposure on the cardiovascular system remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether aldehyde exposure is associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We analyzed associations between aldehydes and CVD using data from 1962 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2013 to 2014. Multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models were used to examine the association between aldehydes and CVD. The prevalence of CVD was 10.3%. After adjusting for confounding factors, including age, sex, education level, race, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol use, hypertension, body mass index, the poverty-income ratio, physical activity, energy intake, high-density cholesterol (HDL) and low-density cholesterol (LDL), compared with the lowest quartiles, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD across the quartiles were 0.52 (0.31, 0.87), 0.73 (0.43, 1.22), and 1.13 (0.68, 1.86) for benzaldehyde and 1.48 (0.87, 2.52), 1.70 (1.01, 2.92), and 2.13 (1.19, 3.86) for isopentanaldehyde. There was no significant association between other aldehydes and CVD. The restricted cubic spline plot showed a J-curve relationship between benzaldehyde and CVD. The inflection point for the curve was found at a benzaldehyde level of 0.98 ng/ml. The ORs (95% CIs) for CVD were 0.51 (0.31, 0.86) and 1.58 (1.15, 2.17) on the left and right sides of the inflection point, respectively. Our results demonstrate a J-curve relationship between benzaldehyde and CVD. Isopentanaldehyde is positively associated with CVD. Further study is warranted to verify this association and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms.Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.