ADHD is known to affect 3–7% of women of childbearing age. This study was done to explore that ADHD is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth or not.

It was a national register‐based cohort study conducted in Sweden. Nulliparous women giving birth to singleton infants which were 377381 in number, were part of the study.

Women were considered to have ADHD if they had been dispensed at least one prescription for ADHD medication. Women with ADHD were compared with women without ADHD in regard to prevalence, severity, and mode of onset of preterm birth. Logistic regression models were used, estimating adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. During the study period, 6327 women gave birth and had ADHD according to our definition. These women had a higher rate of preterm birth compared with women without ADHD. ADHD was particularly associated with very (<32 weeks) preterm births and associations were seen with both spontaneous and medically indicated onsets.

The study concluded that the women who were suffering from ADHD have a higher risk of preterm birth but most of it is due to modifiable risk factors.