Increasing evidence shows that genetic variants of genes in the diabetes mellitus (DM) metabolic pathway, such as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene rs739837 polymorphism, increase the risk of DM susceptibility. However, the findings have been inconsistent. The present study was performed to evaluate the association of VDR gene rs739837 and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk.
A comprehensive meta-analysis and a subgroup analysis were conducted to assess the association between VDR rs739837 and T2DM or GDM among five genetic models (dominant, recessive, homozygote heterozygote, and allele models) using a fixed or random model.
The meta-analysis included 9 studies. In the overall analysis, the results showed that VDR rs739837 was associated with an increased risk of T2DM or GDM in the allele model (T vs. G: OR = 1.088; 95% CI: 1.018-1.163; P = 0.012) and dominant model (TT + GT vs. GG: OR = 1.095; 95% CI: 1.001-1.197; P = 0.047). In the subgroup analysis, VDR rs739837 was also associated with an increased risk of T2DM in the allele model (T vs. G: OR = 1.159; 95% CI: 1.055-1.273; P = 0.002) and dominant model (TT + GT vs. GG: OR = 1.198; 95% CI: 1.048-1.370; P = 0.008). However, VDR rs739837 was not associated with GDM.
Significant associations were found between the VDR rs739837 polymorphism and T2DM susceptibility, but not with GDM.

© 2022. The Author(s).