Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of cause-specific mortality across the globe. Many believe that people with increased intake of fats and carbohydrates are at a higher risk of developing CV disease. The objective of this research is to investigate the association of the consumption of carbohydrates and fats with cardiovascular disease.

This is a prospective population-based study conducted in UK Biobank. It included 1,95,658 participants who had completed at least one dietary questionnaire (Oxford WebQ). The diet and nutrient intakes of the participants were assessed during a 24-hour recall questionnaire. Cox proportional models with penalized cubic splines were used to study non-linear associations, and the primary outcome measures were all-cause mortality and the incidence of CVD.

4,780 participants died over 10.6 years of follow-up, and 948 and 9,776 experienced fat and non-fatal CVD events. Carbohydrate intake displayed a non-linear association with mortality. A similar pattern was observed for sugar. An increased intake of monounsaturated fat and a lower intake of polyunsaturated and saturated fat was associated with a lower risk of mortality.

The research concluded that many associations between macronutrient intake and CVD are non-linear. Therefore, dietary advice could be tailored as per the current intake.