To investigate whether atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) at diagnosis is associated with the occurrence of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or coronary artery disease (CAD) in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV).
The medical records of 167 AAV patients on initial diagnosis was reviewed, and 300 healthy controls were included. AIP was calculated using the following equation: AIP = Log (triglyceride [mg/dL] / high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [mg/dL]). AAV patients were divided into two groups according to the AIP cut-off of 0.11. The event of stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cerebral hemorrhage was recorded as CVA, and CAD events consisted of either myocardial infarction and angina pectoris. CVA- and CAD- free survival rate between those with AIP ≥ 0.11 and < 0.11 were compared by the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox hazard analysis was conducted to identify predictors of CVA.
The median age of AAV patients were 59.0 years, and 54 (32.3%) patients were male. One-hundred and fifteen (68.9%) patients had AIP < 0.11 and 52 (31.1%) had AIP ≥ 0.11. The mean Birmingham vasculitis activity score in AAV patients with AIP < 0.11 was lower than that seen in patients with AIP ≥ 0.11 (12.0 vs. 14.0, P = 0.041). AAV patients had a significantly higher AIP compared to controls (mean - 0.01 vs. -0.10, P < 0.001). During follow-up, the occurrence of CVA and CAD was observed in 16 (9.6%) and 14 (8.4%) patients, respectively. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, AAV patients with AIP ≥ 0.11 had significantly lower CVA-free survival rates than in those with AIP < 0.11 (P = 0.027), whereas there was no difference in CAD according to AIP (P = 0.390). Multivariable Cox analysis indicated that AIP ≥ 0.11 at diagnosis was the sole predictor of CVA (Hazard ratio 3.392, 95% confidence interval 1.076, 10.696, P = 0.037).
AIP is significantly higher in AAV patients than in healthy controls, and AIP ≥ 0.11 at diagnosis is a significant predictor of CVA during follow-up. Stringent surveillance should be provided in AAV patients with AIP ≥ 0.11 regarding the occurrence of CVA.
Retrospectively registered (4-2017-0673).