Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a considerably common childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, often associated with socio-behavioral and academic difficulties. There is an increased risk for development of a range of future problems such as psychiatric disorders, difficulties in employment, and relationships. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and determinants of ADHD among primary school children in district Dehradun and to assess the learning difficulties and classroom behavior in these students.
In this cross-sectional study, overall, 228 students (aged 6-12 years) studying in a primary school were assessed for ADHD after seeking the written informed consent from their parents. The data were analyzed using Excel sheet and SPSS software (22.0 version). For all qualitative measures, frequency and percentages were calculated, and for quantitative measures, mean and standard deviation were calculated. For analysis of categorical values, Chi-square test was used. < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The prevalence of ADHD was found to be 11.8% based on the teacher tool only and 1.75% based on the parent and teacher tools combined. ADHD was found to be significantly more in males. Inattention was the most prevalent subtype of ADHD, and children screened positive for ADHD had significant learning difficulties at various levels.
The possibility of ADHD in students with academic difficulties should not be ignored as children with ADHD usually face significant problems at school such as learning difficulties and have been shown to be at increased risk for a broad range of negative outcomes. Early identification and treatment of ADHD can significantly reduce the rates of some of these poor outcomes. Screening these children in the early years will help the parents, children, teachers, and community at large.

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