Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection follows a natural course of events predicted by a dynamic interaction between viral antigen and the host immune system, which forms the basis for HBV serological diagnosis. These interactions may deviate from the typical serologic patterns. This study investigates the types of atypical HBV serologic profiles (AHBSP) across clinical cohorts of patients with HBV infection in southwestern Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional, hospital-based, multi-centered study. Patients’ sera were analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, anti-HBc IgM, and anti-HBc IgG by ELISA from 279 study participants attending selected gastroenterology clinics between August 2019 and December 2020. The prevalence of atypical HBV serologic profiles was 27% (n = 76). The mean age of patients was 35.7 ± 11.2 years. The gender distribution involved 183 females (65.6%) and 96 males (34.4%). Across clinical cohorts of patients with atypical serologic profiles, HBeAg Negative, anti-HBe positive with detectable HBV DNA had the highest prevalence of 21% followed by isolated anti-HBc antibody positive, HBsAg negative and detectable HBV DNA, 5%. The atypical serologic profiles, HBeAg positive, HBsAg negative with detectable HBV DNA and concurrent anti-HBs with HBsAg, had the lowest prevalence, 0.4%, respectively. This study identified the considerable presence of atypical HBV serologic profiles across clinical cohorts of HBV infection in southwestern Nigeria.