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August 2017 Briefing – Pathology

August 2017 Briefing – Pathology
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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for August 2017. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Stem Cell Factor Tied to Reduced Risk of Cardiac Events, Death

THURSDAY, Aug. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) — High levels of stem cell factor (SCF) are associated with reduced risk of mortality and cardiovascular events, according to a study published online Aug. 26 in the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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More Evidence Links Epstein-Barr Virus to MS Risk

THURSDAY, Aug. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus may up the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS), and the link isn’t limited to whites, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in Neurology.

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Local Allergic Rhinitis Often Progresses Over Time

THURSDAY, Aug. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Patients with local allergic rhinitis (LAR) show worsening of rhinitis, greater tendency toward development of asthma, and impairment of quality of life after 10 years, but have a similar rate of development of allergic rhinitis with systemic atopy as controls, according to research published online Aug. 22 in Allergy.

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Retinal Emboli Linked to Cardiac Risk Factors, Kidney Disease

THURSDAY, Aug. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Retinal emboli are associated with conventional cardiovascular risk factors, stroke, and chronic kidney disease, according to a study published online Aug. 24 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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FDA Approves First Gene Therapy in the United States

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Wednesday approved the first gene therapy — Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) — in the United States, to treat certain pediatric and young adult patients with a form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

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Review Links Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Cognitive Impairment

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with increased likelihood of cognitive impairment, according to a review published online Aug. 28 in JAMA Neurology.

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Most Melanomas Don’t Start As Existing Moles

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The majority of melanomas arise from new lesions rather than existing moles, according to a review published online Aug. 29 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Novel Genetic Variant in IGF2 Linked to Reduced T2DM Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) — A novel genetic variant has been identified in the IGF2 gene among a Latino population that is associated with reduced risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a study published online Aug. 24 in Diabetes.

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FDA Cites ‘Significant Deviations’ at Florida Stem Cell Clinic

TUESDAY, Aug. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) — A Florida stem cell clinic has received a warning letter from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration about what the agency describes as serious problems that could pose health risks to patients.

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Low Rate of Recurrence Seen for Serious Reactions to Vaccines

TUESDAY, Aug. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Severe vaccine reactions recur rarely, if ever, when a child receives the same vaccine again, or one with similar ingredients, according to a review published online Aug. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Gender-Specific High-Risk ‘Window’ Seen in Alzheimer’s

TUESDAY, Aug. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Women with a genetic predisposition for Alzheimer’s disease face a 10-year window — between ages 65 and 75 — when they have far greater chances of developing the disease than men with similar genetic risks, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in JAMA Neurology.

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CDC: Not All Newborns Getting Heart Disease, Hearing Loss Tests

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Some newborns in the United States still aren’t getting screened for hearing loss or congenital heart disease, according to research published in the Aug. 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Androgen-Deprivation Therapy May Carry Cardiovascular Risks

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Use of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) may increase the risk of certain cardiovascular conditions in men with prostate cancer, according to a study published online Aug. 24 in the British Journal of Cancer.

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Fatty Acid Remodeling Seen in T2DM Remission Post Bariatric Sx

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) following biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (DS) is associated with increased disposal of triglycerides (TG) and acylcarnitine production during lipid overload, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in Diabetes.

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Flame Retardants Associated With Reduced IVF Success

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Higher exposure to organophosphate flame retardants is associated with reduced success of in vitro fertilization, according to a study published online Aug. 25 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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Computed Tomography Useful for Staging Head, Neck Melanoma

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Patients with head and neck melanoma benefit from the introduction of initial staging using computed tomography (CT), according to research published online Aug. 21 in Head & Neck.

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Increases in IgE, Eosinophils, Mast Cells Can ID IgG4-RD

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Most patients with immunoglobulin G subclass 4-related disease (IgG4-RD) have increased levels of IgE, eosinophils, and mast cells, according to research published in the September issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Tidal CO2 Prognostic for Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary HTN

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) — End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels are prognostic for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), according to a letter to the editor published online Aug. 14 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Community Consumption Comprises Most Antibacterial Use

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Community antibacterial consumption comprises about 85 to 95 percent of total antibacterial consumption, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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Cycling Crash Deaths Rising in the United States

FRIDAY, Aug. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Bicyclist deaths on U.S. roadways are up significantly, and men — not children — are commonly the victims, a new report finds.

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ART Era Has Changed Secondary Cancers After Kaposi Sarcoma

FRIDAY, Aug. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) — There has been a significant decline in the risk of secondary cancers after Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in the era of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to a study published online Aug. 24 in JAMA Oncology.

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Lithium in Drinking Water Linked to Dementia Incidence

FRIDAY, Aug. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Lithium in drinking water is associated with the incidence of dementia in a nonlinear pattern, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Noninvasive Test for NASH, Fibrosis in Patients With Psoriasis

FRIDAY, Aug. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) — For patients with psoriasis receiving long-term methotrexate sodium therapy, a noninvasive test for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatic fibrosis (NASH FibroSure) can be used to monitor development of methotrexate-induced hepatotoxic effects, with a significant correlation for cumulative methotrexate dose with higher score in women, but not men, according to research published online Aug. 23 in JAMA Dermatology.

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Asthma Tied to Later Inflammatory Bowel Disease

FRIDAY, Aug. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Asthma is associated with subsequent development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to a study published in the September issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Meth Use Tied to Higher Risk of Stroke in Younger People

THURSDAY, Aug. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Younger adults who use methamphetamine appear to be at greater risk for stroke, particularly hemorrhagic stroke, according to research published online Aug. 23 in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.

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Telomere Length Prognostic in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

THURSDAY, Aug. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Telomere attrition occurs in tumor cells from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and shortened telomeres are independent prognosticators for HCC patients, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in the Journal of Pathology.

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No Increase in Acute Kidney Injury Risk for SGLT2 Users

THURSDAY, Aug. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) is not increased for new sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor users, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in Diabetes Care.

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Increased Risk of MI, Stroke for Patients With Hip Fracture

THURSDAY, Aug. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Patients with hip fracture have an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.

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Myricetin Potentially Protective Against Photodamage of Skin

THURSDAY, Aug. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Myricetin protects cells from photodamage via the IκB/NFκB signaling pathway, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology.

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Estimated 319,400 Deaths From Rheumatic Heart Disease in 2015

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) — In 2015 there were an estimated 319,400 deaths due to rheumatic heart disease, with a reduction in global age-standardized mortality from 1990, according to a study published in the Aug. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Demand for Liver Transplant for NASH Set to Continue Rising

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Given population obesity trends, the increase in the demand for liver transplantation (LT) for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) noted since 2000 is expected to continue, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in Hepatology.

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Vitamin B6, B12 Supplements May Up Risk of Lung Cancer in Men

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Men, and especially male smokers, appear to be more likely to develop lung cancer if they take high doses of vitamins B6 and B12, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Nurse-, System-Related Factors Analyzed in Wrong-Patient Events

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Greater focus is needed on correct identification processes in order to prevent wrong-patient medication administration incidents, and system supports for nurses are critical, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

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PERSEVERE-XP Improves Mortality Risk Stratification in Sepsis

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Addition of previously unconsidered genes from the Pediatric Sepsis Biomarker Risk Model (PERSEVERE) can improve mortality risk stratification for children with septic shock, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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NT-ProBNP-Guided Treatment No Benefit in High-Risk HFrEF

TUESDAY, Aug. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) — For high-risk patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), an amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)-guided treatment strategy does not improve clinical outcomes versus usual care, according to a study published in the Aug. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Zika Thrives in Pregnancy Due to Vulnerable Immune System

TUESDAY, Aug. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The Zika virus thrives in pregnant women by suppressing their already dampened immune systems and running roughshod over their body’s natural defenses, which allows the virus to directly attack the fetus, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in Nature Microbiology.

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Occult Cancer Found in ~5 Percent With Unprovoked VTE

TUESDAY, Aug. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) — About one in 20 patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) have occult cancer detected within one year, according to a review published online Aug. 22 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening Reduces Mortality

MONDAY, Aug. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy reduces all-cause mortality, according to a research letter published online Aug. 22 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Hours Worked Impacted by Kids for Female, Not Male Doctors

MONDAY, Aug. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) — For women, but not men, in dual-physician couples, weekly hours worked are lower for those with versus those without children, according to a research letter published online Aug. 21 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Arsenic Levels Higher in Patients With Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

MONDAY, Aug. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Certain arsenic species levels are higher among patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Journal of Dermatology.

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Outdoor Nighttime Light Exposure Linked to Breast Cancer Risk

MONDAY, Aug. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) — There is an association between living in areas with high amounts of ambient nighttime light and slightly increased odds for breast cancer in younger women who smoke, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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Zika Does Not Appear to Last in Semen As Long As Thought

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The Zika virus might not remain in the semen of some infected men as long as previously thought, according to a research letter published in the Aug. 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Higher Odds of Infection With Reduced Kidney Function

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) — As kidney function declines, infection risk rises, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Procalcitonin Testing Not Impacting Antibiotic Rx for COPD

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Hospital adoption of procalcitonin (PCT) testing has had little impact on antibiotic prescribing for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Oral Contraceptive Use Linked to Lower Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Oral contraceptive (OC) use is associated with reduced risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to research published online Aug. 17 in the Annals of Rheumatic Diseases.

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Moderate, Severe OSA Linked to Elevated Blood Coagulability

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with elevated blood coagulability markers, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

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Candida Antigen Safe, Effective for Treating Common Warts

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Candida antigen is a promising, effective, and safe immunotherapeutic treatment for common warts, according to a study published online Aug. 8 in the International Journal of Dermatology.

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Worse Survival Seen for Alternative Vs Usual Cancer Rx

FRIDAY, Aug. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Patients who choose alternative medicine over traditional cancer treatments for curable cancers have a higher risk of dying early, according to research published online Aug. 10 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Increase in Survival Without Severe Disability for Preemies

THURSDAY, Aug. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) — During the past two decades, survival and survival without severe or moderate neuromotor or sensory disabilities have increased among preterm infants, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in The BMJ.

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Global Disease Burden of COPD, Asthma Quantified

THURSDAY, Aug. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) — In 2015, there were more deaths worldwide due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than asthma, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.

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FDA: Potential Contamination in Some Liquid Pharma Products

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced a recall of numerous liquid pharmaceutical products because of possible bacterial contamination that could cause severe infections in vulnerable patients.

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Plasma Amino Acids Up in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) — In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), increased plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations are observed, according to a study published online Aug. 12 in Hepatology.

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’07 to ’14 Saw Drop in Proportion Needing Dialysis After TAVI

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) — From 2007 to 2014 there was a decrease in the proportion of patients needing dialysis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), according to a study published online Aug. 2 in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.

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Emergency Departments See Few Cases of Sepsis in Adolescents

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) — A typical emergency department sees few cases of sepsis among adolescents, according to a research letter published online Aug. 14 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Falling Insulin Requirement Linked to Placental Dysfunction

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) — For pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes, falling insulin requirement (FIR) is associated with altered expression of placental antiangiogenic factors and preeclampsia, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in Diabetes Care.

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Single-Color PCR Detects Cancer Mutations From Circulating DNA

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) — A single-color digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay can detect cancer mutations directly from circulating DNA from patients, according to research published online Aug. 14 in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

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Phenotype Varies for Presumed Pathogenic Variants in KCNB1

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) — De novo KCNB1 missense and loss-of-function variants are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, with or without seizures, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in JAMA Neurology.

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Studies Used for FDA Approval of Device Changes Often Low Quality

TUESDAY, Aug. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Many studies used to support U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of high-risk medical device modifications are not controlled; and efficacy of drugs granted accelerated approval is often confirmed three years after approval, according to two studies published in the Aug. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Exposure to Particulate Matter Linked to Metabolic Alterations

TUESDAY, Aug. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Exposure to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm is associated with metabolic alterations, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in Circulation.

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Diverse Spectrum of Neurologic Syndromes Seen With Zika

TUESDAY, Aug. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is associated with increased incidence of neurological syndromes, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in JAMA Neurology.

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Fecal Calprotectin Is Best Marker for Discriminating Pediatric IBD

TUESDAY, Aug. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Fecal calprotectin adds most to discrimination between pediatric patients with and without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to a meta-analysis published online Aug. 14 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Hyperglycemia May Cause Caries but Not Periodontal Disease

MONDAY, Aug. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) — For rodents with diabetes, periodontal inflammation may be derived from dental caries rather than periodontal disease (PD), according to a study published online Aug. 9 in Diabetes.

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Taste, Calories Affect Metabolic Response to Sugared Beverages

FRIDAY, Aug. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) — There is a non-linear association between caloric load and reward, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in Current Biology.

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HTRA1 Mutations Tied to Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

FRIDAY, Aug. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Heterozygous HTRA1 mutations may play a role in familial cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), according to a study published online Aug. 6 in CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics.

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Disruption of NAD Synthesis Tied to Congenital Malformations

THURSDAY, Aug. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) — For humans and mice, disruption of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) synthesis causes deficiency of NAD, resulting in congenital mutations, according to a study published in the Aug. 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Peptide Immunotx Well Tolerated in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) — For patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, proinsulin peptide immunotherapy is safe and does not accelerate β cell functional decline, according to a study published in the Aug. 9 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Characteristics of Diabetes in Infancy Explored

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Diabetes in infancy has different characteristics depending on mutation subtype, and is associated with high frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), according to a report published online Aug. 4 in Diabetes Care.

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Sleep-Disordered Breathing Linked to Cognitive Dysfunction

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with cognitive deficits, with the strongest associations seen in apolipoprotein ε-4 (APOE-ε4) allele carriers, according to a study published online July 21 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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New Model Predicts Mortality in Stable Coronary Heart Disease

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) — A biomarker-based model provides a new tool for the prediction of cardiovascular (CV) death in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Azithromycin Tied to Poor Airflow Decline-Free Survival After HSCT

TUESDAY, Aug. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) — For patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), early administration of azithromycin is associated with worse airflow decline-free survival, according to a study published in the Aug. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Flatter Diurnal Cortisol Slopes Linked to Poorer Health Outcomes

MONDAY, Aug. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Flatter diurnal cortisol slopes correlate with poorer health in 10 of 12 subtypes of emotional and physical health outcomes examined, according to a review published in the September issue of Psychoneuroendocrinology.

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Single Measures of Viral Load May Overestimate HIV Suppression

MONDAY, Aug. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Single measures of viral load can overestimate how many individuals with HIV infection have viral suppression, according to an observation piece published online Aug. 8 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Epigenetic Markers Correlate With Allergic Rhinitis Severity

FRIDAY, Aug. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Participants with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis undergo epigenetic changes within three hours of exposure to grass pollen, according to a study published online July 29 in Allergy.

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ABO Incompatible Dual Graft Living Donor Liver Transplant Viable

THURSDAY, Aug. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Dual-graft (DG) adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT) with ABO-incompatible (ABOi) and ABO-compatible (ABOc) graft combination is associated with high rates of graft survival, with no significant difference for ABOi and ABOc grafts, according to research published online July 31 in the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Genetic Variation Impacts Pharmacokinetics of Exemestane

THURSDAY, Aug. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The OATP1B1 c.521>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) influences exemestane pharmacokinetics in healthy postmenopausal women, according to a study published online July 29 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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IgG-Degrading Enzyme Allows HLA-Incompatible Transplant

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The immunoglobulin G (IgG)-degrading enzyme derived from Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) reduces or eliminates donor-specific antibodies, allowing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-incompatible kidney transplantation, according to the combined results of two phase 1-2 studies published in the Aug. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Signature ID’d for Allergen-Specific Type 2 Helper Cells

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) — In research published in the Aug. 2 issue of Science Translational Medicine, scientists have identified a human type 2 helper (TH2) cell signature in allergen-specific TH2 cells.

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Revenue Exceeds Expenditures for Many ABMS Member Boards

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Overall revenue exceeds expenditures for many American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) member boards, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Downregulation of miR-126 Augments DNA Damage Response

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) — For cigarette smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), downregulation of microRNA-126 (miR-126) augments DNA damage response (DDR), according to a letter to the editor published online July 28 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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TXNIP Blocks Autophagic Flux, Causes α-Synuclein Accumulation

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) blocks autophagic flux and induces expression of α-synuclein accumulation via inhibition of ATP13A2, according to a study published online July 29 in CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics.

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Canagliflozin Delays Increase in Certain CV Biomarkers in T2DM

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) — For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), treatment with canagliflozin delays the increase in serum N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) compared with placebo, according to a study published in the Aug. 8 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Similar Defects ID’d for T2DM, Chronic Pancreatitis and Diabetes

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Patients with type 2 diabetes and those with diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis have similarly impaired α-cell responses to oral glucose ingestion and hypoglycemia, according to a study published online July 27 in Diabetes Care.

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Diabetes Symptoms Appear to Spread Via Prion-Like Mechanism

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) deposits in the pancreas may lead scientists to a better understanding of type 2 diabetes, according to research published online Aug. 1 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

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Little Risk of Oropharyngeal Mucosal Transmission of Zika

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The Zika virus doesn’t appear to be transmitted through saliva, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in Nature Communications.

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Periodontal Disease History Linked to Increased Cancer Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Among older women, periodontal disease history is associated with increased total cancer risk, and with increased risk of several specific types of cancer, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Rates of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Down in Rural Areas

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Children and teens from rural areas may be less likely to develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than those in cities, according to a study published online July 25 in the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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Climate Change Expected to Up Premature Deaths From Pollution

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Increases in air pollution caused by rising temperatures will trigger an additional 60,000 premature deaths each year around the globe by 2030, and as many as 260,000 more premature deaths annually by 2100, according to findings from a new study published online July 31 in Nature Climate Change.

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Higher Risk of Dementia Seen in Those Hailing From ‘Stroke Belt’

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Health issues for people born in high stroke mortality states (HSMSs) include a higher risk of developing dementia — even if they move elsewhere, according to research published online July 31 in JAMA Neurology.

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Meta-Analysis Compares Efficacy of Therapies for Preventing TB

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Isoniazid monotherapy, rifampicin monotherapy, and combination therapies can be efficacious for preventing active tuberculosis (TB) among adults and children with latent TB infection (LTBI), according to research published online Aug. 1 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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