Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a complication following trauma or surgery and may be difficult to diagnose since biomarkers are lacking. Using protein array technology, we found antibodies binding to p29ING4, which we further characterized using ELISA.
Thirty-six sera of early-stage type 1 CRPS, 66 sera of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 53 sera of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), 29 sera of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), 22 sera of patients after radial fractures (trauma control), and 100 sera of blood donors (BD) were analyzed for anti-p29ING4. We established ELISAs with 7 different antigens and using different secondary antibodies binding to IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA, and IgM, and 2 different tests to detect immune complexes (IC) of p29ING4 and IgG or IgG1.
The highest likelihood ratios versus CRPS and trauma control were observed considering the A1-23 (sensitivity 19%, specificity 100%, LR > 19) using IgG as a secondary antibody, the A120-165 (sensitivity 17%, specificity 100%, LR = 17) using IgG as a secondary antibody and the A120-165 (sensitivity 31%, specificity 95%, LR = 6.2) using IgA as a secondary antibody. IC of p29ING4 and IgG were present in 11/36 (31%) CRPS sera, 17/64 (27%) RA sera, 13/53 (25%) SpA sera, 5/29 (17%) PsA sera, 1/22 (5%) trauma control sera, and 4/100 (4%) sera of BD. IC of p29ING4 and IgG1 were present in 14/36 (39%) CRPS sera, 19/64 (30%) RA sera, 13/53 (25%) SpA, 1/29 (3%) PsA, 2/22 (9%) trauma control, and 4/100 (4%) of the BD sera.
Due to the lack of other biomarkers of type 1 CRPS, P29ING4 autoantibodies could be helpful in its diagnostic work-up.