Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) might be associated with underlying hematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, the association between AIHA and chronic myelogenous leukemia is extremely unusual.
We reviewed case reports and series of 54 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who developed autoimmune hemolysis between 1952 and 2018. Almost all the patients were in the chronic phase and were classified into transplant and non-transplant groups. The onset of autoimmune hemolysis was earlier in the transplant group and required second- and third-line therapy to control it. The etiology of hemolysis is poorly understood but attributed in the transplant group to immune reconstitution, viral infections, or CML relapse. On the other hand, it is thought to be related in the non-transplant group to CML medications, especially interferon. Key Messages: Although AIHA is uncommon in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients, it should be in the differential diagnosis list for those who develop a sudden drop in hemoglobin without a bleeding source.

© 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.