Platelet concentrates have emerged as innovative autologous blood products that enhance tissue healing and regeneration in regenerative therapy. A common feature of these products is their higher than baseline platelet concentration, which improves wound healing and tissue repair. Four main categories of products can be easily defined, based on their leukocyte content and fibrin architecture: pure platelet-rich plasma, such as Cell Separator PRP or Anitua’ PRGF; leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP), such as PCCS or Ace PRP; pure platelet-rich fibrin (P-PRF), such as Fibrinet PRFM; and leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF), such as Choukroun’s PRF. Two families contain significant concentrations of leukocytes: L-PRP and L-PRF. These four families of products have different biological signatures and mechanisms and obviously different clinical applications. An L-PRF membrane releases growth factors and matrix proteins over a period longer than 7 days, whereas a PRP gel matrix releases and disperses its growth factors in a relatively quick download. In the near future, simple and inexpensive products such as L-PRF are expected to have applications in oral-maxillofacial surgery, periodontal surgery, plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, and sports medicine. Leukocytes substantially affect the intrinsic biology and properties of platelet concentrates, not only because they enhance immune function and antibacterial potential, but also because they have essential roles in the wound healing process. Unfortunately, their impact has been almost completely neglected in the literature. Improved understanding of the effects of leukocytes in wound healing is essential for development of new clinical applications of platelet concentrates.
© 2020 The Authors. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia on behalf of Kaohsiung Medical University.