The purpose of this study was to develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) for automated localization of the scleral spur in ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images of open-angle eyes.
UBM images were acquired, and one glaucoma specialist provided reference coordinates of scleral spur locations in all images. A CNN model based on the EfficientNetB3 architecture was developed to detect the scleral spur in each image. The prediction errors and Euclidean distance were used to evaluate localization performance of the CNN model. Trabecular-iris angle 500 (TIA500) and angle-opening distance 500 (AOD500) were measured and analyzed using the scleral spur locations provided by the specialist and predicted by the CNN model.
The CNN was developed using a training dataset of 2328 images and tested using an independent dataset of 258 images. The mean absolute prediction errors of CNN model were 48.06 ± 45.40 µm for X-coordinates and 30.84 ± 27.03 µm for Y-coordinates. The mean absolute intraobserver variability was 47.80 ± 44.45 µm for X-coordinates and 29.50 ± 25.77 µm for Y-coordinates. The mean Euclidean distance of the CNN was 60.41 ± 49.02 µm and the intraobserver mean Euclidean distance was 59.78 ± 47.12 µm. The mean absolute error in TIA500 was 1.26 ± 1.38 degrees for all test images and in AOD500 was 0.039 ± 0.051 mm.
A CNN can detect the scleral spur on UBM images of open-angle eyes with performance similar to that of a glaucoma specialist.
Deep learning algorithms for automating scleral spur localization would facilitate the quantitative assessment of the opening of the angle and the risk in angle closure.