To compensate for the intraoperative brain tissue deformation, computer-assisted intervention methods have been used to register preoperative magnetic resonance images with intraoperative images. In order to model the deformation due to tissue resection, the resection cavity needs to be segmented in intraoperative images. We present an automatic method to segment the resection cavity in intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) images. We trained and evaluated two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) U-Net networks on two datasets of 37 and 13 cases that contain images acquired from different ultrasound systems. The best overall performing method was the 3-D network, which resulted in a 0.72 mean and 0.88 median Dice score over the whole dataset. The 2-D network also had good results with less computation time, with a median Dice score over 0.8. We also evaluated the sensitivity of network performance to training and testing with images from different ultrasound systems and image field of view. In this application, we found specialized networks to be more accurate for processing similar images than a general network trained with all the data. Overall, promising results were obtained for both datasets using specialized networks. This motivates further studies with additional clinical data, to enable training and validation of a clinically viable deep-learning model for automated delineation of the tumor resection cavity in iUS images.© 2020 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
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