Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is one of the main causes of human death in the world. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) provides limited protection in adolescents and adults. To explore the factors reducing efficacy of BCG vaccine, we assess the impacts of interleukin (IL)-10 and alarmins S100A8/A9 on T cell memory. We found that BCG-induced IL-10 inhibited production of S100A8/A9 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and murine splenocytes. S100A9 deficiency inhibited IFN-γ production by CD4 T cells in the early phase of BCG immunization and hindered the development of effector memory T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, while IL-10 deficiency promoted Th1 memory and blocking IL-10 signalling enhanced Th1 protective recall response against M.tb. IL-10 inhibited the binding of transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) to S100a8/a9 promoter leading to S100A8/A9 reduction. S100A8/A9 heterodimer enhanced the IFN-γ production via receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signalling in CD4 T cells. Our results demonstrate a hurdle to development of Th1 memory after BCG immunization and clarify the mechanism of the regulation of Th1 memory by IL-10 and S100A8/A9. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.