Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) should be considered for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) having estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) > 30 mg/g. However, SGLT2i is currently underprescribed among eligible, at-risk patients for CKD progression. We analyzed prescription patterns and barriers to initiating SGLT2i in patients with T2D and CKD in real practice.
A total of 3,703 consecutive outpatients with T2D from four teaching hospitals during six months (2019 ~ 2020) were reviewed. Five eGFR categories (G1, ≥ 90; G2, 60-89; G3ab, 30-59; G4-5, < 30 mL/min/1.73 m) and three UACR categories (A1, 300 mg/g) were used to define CKD status.
Overall, 25.8 % patients received SGLT2i in the following eGFR and albuminuria categories: G1 (A1, 31 %; A2, 48 %; A3, 45 %); G2 (A1, 18 %; A2, 24 %; A3, 30%); and G3 (A1, 9 %; A2, 7 %; A3, 13 %). Total prevalence estimate of CKD was 33.8 % (n = 1,253), of whom 25.6 % patients received SGLT2i. We defined eGFR ≥ 45 mL/min/1.73 m and UACR ≥ 30 mg/g as high-risk CKD group eligible for SGLT2i (n = 905), of whom 32.9 % patients were treated with an SGLT2i. In this high-risk group, SGLT2i initiation showed negative correlations with age ≥ 65 years and recent hospitalization. Conversely, HbA1c level, body mass index (BMI), presence of diabetic retinopathy, and previous heart failure events were positively correlated with SGLT2i initiation.
Only 32.9 % of T2D with CKD eligible for SGLT2i is currently treated with SGLT2i in real-world clinical practice. The older patient group and clinical inertia are the main barriers to initiate SGLT2i for eligible patients. Clinicians should change the glucocentric approach and focus on reducing renal events in T2D.