The expansion of the use of in vitro production techniques has revolutionized the bovine embryo market. In the last decade, we have seen the number of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos surpass the number of in vivo-derived (IVD) embryos obtained worldwide. Concomitantly, other biotechnologies were also improved, following the global trend. Embryo cryopreservation has received special attention, as it is one of the tools capable of disseminating in vitro production. Currently, two protocols are available: slow freezing and vitrification. Both have advantages and disadvantages regarding their application and, many aspects need to be considered before their use. In this review, we discuss in vitro production market trends, cellular and molecular features involved in embryo response to cryopreservation, and addressed cryo-storage period and embryonic developmental stage on cryosurvival. In addition, we also presented an overview of some aspects that impact the pregnancy rate following transfer of fresh and cryopreserved IVP embryos.
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