A better understanding of the connection between factors associated with pain sensitivity and related disability in people with fibromyalgia syndrome may assist therapists in optimizing therapeutic programs. The current study applied mathematical modeling to analyze relationships between pain-related, psychological, psychophysical, health-related, and cognitive variables with sensitization symptom and related disability by using Bayesian Linear Regressions (BLR) in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The novelty of the present work was to transfer a mathematical background to a complex pain condition with widespread symptoms. Demographic, clinical, psychological, psychophysical, health-related, cognitive, sensory-related, and related-disability variables were collected in 126 women with FMS. The first BLR model revealed that age, pain intensity at rest (mean-worst pain), years with pain (history of pain), and anxiety levels have significant correlations with the presence of sensitization-associated symptoms. The second BLR showed that lower health-related quality of life and higher pain intensity at rest (mean-worst pain) and pain intensity with daily activities were significantly correlated with related disability. These results support an application of mathematical modeling for identifying different interactions between a sensory (i.e., Central Sensitization Score) and a functional (i.e., Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire) aspect in women with FMS.