The gut microbiota is an important contributor to both health and disease. While previous studies have reported on the beneficial influences of the gut microbiota and probiotic supplementation on bone health, their role in recovery from skeletal injury and resultant systemic sequelae remains unexplored. This study aimed to determine the extent to which probiotics could modulate bone repair by dampening fracture-induced systemic inflammation. Our findings demonstrate that femur fracture induced an increase in gut permeability lasting up to 7 days after trauma before returning to basal levels. Strikingly, dietary supplementation with Bifidobacterium adolescentis augmented the tightening of the intestinal barrier, dampened the systemic inflammatory response to fracture, accelerated fracture callus cartilage remodeling, and elicited enhanced protection of the intact skeleton following fracture. Together, these data outline a mechanism whereby dietary supplementation with beneficial bacteria can be therapeutically targeted to prevent the systemic pathologies induced by femur fracture.Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.