Securidaca inappendiculata is a xanthone rich medicinal plant that has been used in the treatment of inflammation and autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for centuries; however, the material base and mechanism of action responsible for its anti-arthritis effect still remains elusive. The objective of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of xanthone-enriched extract of the plant against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and explore the underlying mechanisms. The xanthone-deprived fraction (XDF) and xanthone-rich fraction (XRF) were obtained by using a resin adsorption coupled with acid-base treatment method, and their chemical composition difference was characterized by UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Effects of the two on CIA were analyzed using radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses. The results indicated that XRF alleviated joint structures destructions with the higher efficacy than XDF, and decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody in CIA rats significantly. Furthermore, XRF inhibited nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) mediated fat biosynthesis and utilization indicated by clinical evidences and metabonomics analysis, which thereby disrupted energy-metabolism feedback. In addition, Toll-like Receptor 4 and High Mobility Group Protein 1 expressions were downregulated in XRF-treated CIA rats. Collective evidences suggest NAMPT could be an ideal target for RA treatments and reveal a novel antirheumatic mechanism of S. inappendiculata by regulating NAMPT controlled fat metabolism.© 2020 The Authors. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia on behalf of Kaohsiung Medical University.
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