The biofouling of ureteral stents and subsequent urinary tract infections mainly come from the adsorption and adhesion of proteins and microorganisms and their ensuing proliferation. Although general polycationic surfaces in implants have good antibacterial activities, they suffer from limited durability due to severe protein and bacterial adsorption. Here, a biodegradable and anti-biofilm fiber-membrane structured ureteral stent (FMBUS) with synergetic contact-killing antibacterial activity and antiprotein adsorption is described. The stent is prepared by generating hyperbranched poly(amide-amine)-grafted polydopamine microparticles (≈300 nm) on the surface of fibers by in situ polymerization and Schiff base reactions. The biomimetic surface endows the FMBUS with a positive charge (+21.36 mV) and superhydrophilicity (water contact angle: 0°). As a result, the stents fulfilled the following functions: i) reduced attachment of host protein due to superhydrophilicity (Lysozyme: 92.1%; human serum albumin: 39.4%); ii) high bactericidal activities against contact pathogenic bacteria (contact-killing rate: 99.9999% for both E. coli and S. aureus; antiadhesion rate: 99.2% for E. coli and 99.9999% for S. aureus); iii) biocompatibility in vitro (relative growth rate of L929: >90% on day 3) and in vivo; and iv) gradient biodegradability to avoid a second surgery of stent extraction 1-2 weeks after implantation.
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