Pandemics caused by influenza A virus (IAV) are responsible for the deaths of millions of humans around the world. One of these pandemics occurred in Mexico in 2009. Despite the impact of IAV on human health, there is no effective vaccine. Gene mutations and translocation of genome segments of different IAV subtypes infecting a single host cell make the development of a universal vaccine difficult. The design of immunogenic peptides using bioinformatics tools could be an interesting strategy to increase the success of vaccines. In this work, we used the predicted amino acid sequences of the neuraminidase (NA) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of different IAV subtypes to perform multiple alignments, epitope predictions, molecular dynamics simulations, and experimental validation. Peptide selection was based on the following criteria: promiscuity, protein surface exposure, and the degree of conservation among different medically relevant IAV strains. These peptides were tested using immunological assays to test their ability to induce production of antibodies against IAV. We immunized rabbits and mice and measured the levels of IgG and IgA antibodies in serum samples and nasal washes. Rabbit antibodies against the peptides P11 and P14 (both of which are hybrids of NA and HA) recognized HA from both group 1 (H1, H2, and H5) and group 2 (H3 and H7) IAV and also recognized the purified NA protein from the viral stock (influenza A Puerto Rico/916/34). IgG antibodies from rabbits immunized with P11 and P14 were capable of recognizing viral particles and inhibited virus hemagglutination. Additionally, intranasal immunization of mice with P11 and P14 induced specific IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and nasal mucosa, respectively. Interestingly, the IgG antibodies were found to have neutralizing capability. In conclusion, the peptides designed through in silico studies were validated in experimental assays.
Facile Strategy by Hyaluronic Acid Functional Carbon Dot-Doxorubicin Nanoparticles for CD44 Targeted Drug Delivery and Enhanced Breast Cancer Therapy.
February 10, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- ENDO: 2020ENDO 2020 Annual Conference has been canceled due to COVID-19. Here are highlights of emerging data that has still been released. Keep an eye out for ENDO Online 2020, which will take place from June 8 to 22.
- CROI 2020Every year, CROI hosts some of the world's leading experts in HIV research, who come to present exciting new data and drive forward the field of HIV/AIDS research. This year, due to COVID-19, CROI held their meeting virtually.