The goal of this review is to describe the present state of knowledge on the potential use of biomarkers for predicting renal cell carcinoma (RCC) recurrence following curative therapy. In addition, researchers hope to offer a glimpse of the clinical implications of using biomarkers for follow-up planning. Many other biomarkers have been proposed. Biomarkers for RCC have been identified in tumor tissue, blood, and urine. For RCC recurrence and progression prediction, a range of substances, including proteins, DNA, and RNA, deserve high precision. Their application in prediction models may result in better risk classification for patients.
Future prognostic models will very certainly incorporate a combination of traditional characteristics and new biomarkers. Such models may enable more precise treatment and follow-up planning.