Journal of clinical pathology 2018 03 28() pii 10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205071
Clinical outcome prediction is major concern to patients with cancer. Various molecular markers in various carcinomas have been identified in the past few decades. However, accurate predictors in chondrosarcoma have not been developed, even though chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone tumour. Chondrosarcoma is the cartilage-forming malignancy and shows a wide spectrum of clinicopathological behaviours. The majority of chondrosarcoma grows slowly and rarely metastasises, and adequate surgery leads to a good prognosis. However, wide surgical excision is acquired in high-grade chondrosarcoma, because this tumour is highly resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. To decide best therapy, accurate diagnostic markers are also necessary in chondrosarcoma. It is reported that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis increase by chondrosarcoma staging, and they are promoted by leptin and adiponectin. Several microRNAs to regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-C are also reported. Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and periostin are proposed as new biomarkers for differential diagnosis of enchondroma and chondrosarcoma. This review summarises that chondrosarcoma diagnostic markers are currently reported.