The freezing episode (FE) management during gait in Parkinson’s disease is inefficient with current medications, neurosurgery, and physical interventions. Knowing the biomechanical change patients suffer preceding FE would be the ultimate goal to measure, predict, and prevent these events.
We performed a systematic review to summarize the kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic, and spatio-temporal characteristics of the events that precede the FE during gait in Parkinson’s disease.
Databases searched included PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane and between 2001 to August 2021.
The present study was a systematic review registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021255082). Three reviewers searched and selected studies with methodologies involving biomechanical changes and kinetic, kinematic, electromyography, and spatiotemporal changes before FE in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. The relevant articles that show the events preceding FE in patients with PD were identified. We excluded studies that describe or compare methods or algorithms to detect FE. Studies may include participants with all PD severity, time of disease, and age.
We selected ten articles for final evaluation. The most consistent results indicate a dramatic reduction of movement excursions with (1) decrease in stride length; (2) decreased gait speed; (3) postural instability with the increased double support phase; (4) incoordination of anterior tibial and gastrocnemius; (5) larger amplitude in the EMG of biceps femoris; (6) decreased range of motion in the sagittal plane at the ankle and hip joints; and (7) anterior pelvic tilt.
FE is characterized by complex motor patterns than normal gait and mismatched gains in the perception and execution of the ongoing movement.

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