Journal of hypertension 2018 04 09() doi 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001723
The objective of this study was to determine how baseline blood pressure and incident hypertension related to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, HIV-related inflammation and mortality in HIV-infected adults in a low-income country.
We conducted long-term follow-up of HIV-infected adults who had participated in a trial of early vs. delayed initiation of ART in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Between 2005 and 2008, 816 HIV-infected adults were randomized to early (N = 408) vs. delayed ART (when CD4 cell count <200 cells/μl or AIDS-defining condition; N = 408). Blood pressure was measured every 3 months. Hypertension was diagnosed according to the Joint National Committee (JNC-7) guidelines. Biomarkers of inflammation and coagulation were measured from banked enrolment plasma samples. Survival analyses were performed using Stata 14. RESULTS
The median age at enrolment was 39 years. The median follow-up time was 7.3 years. The hypertension incidence rate was 3.41 per 100 person-years, and was similar in early and delayed ART groups. In multivariable models, independent predictors of incident hypertension were older age, higher BMI and plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR = 1.23, P < 0.001). Systolic pressure more than 140 mmHg at enrolment was associated with increased mortality (aHR = 2.47, P = 0.03) as was systolic pressure less than 90 mmHg (aHR = 2.25, P = 0.04). Prevalent and incident hypertension were also significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSION
In a large prospective study of HIV-infected adults, we found a high incidence of hypertension associated with HIV-related inflammation. Baseline hypertension conferred a more than two-fold increased risk of death. Among HIV-infected adults in low-income countries, hypertension should be considered a serious threat to long-term survival.