Blood pressure is one of the critical determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in middle-aged and older adults. But whether blood pressure patterns in young adulthood increase the risk of CVD and mortality in middle age is not clear. The objective of this study is to examine whether blood pressure in young adulthood is associated with CVD incidence and mortality in middle age.

This prospective cohort study consisted of a total of 3,394 participants (mean age 35.1 years). The blood pressure patterns of the participants were examined at 2, 5, and 7 years after the baseline. The primary outcome of the study was cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, along with the associations of CVD events and mortality with the systolic BP levels.

During a median follow-up of 20 years, 162 CVD events and 181 deaths were reported. After adjusting for SBP levels, the hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events for each 1-SD increase in SBP levels was 1.25. The SBP was also associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.24).

The research concluded that young adults with high systolic blood pressure were at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality later in life.