Background and Purpose- Women have worse stroke outcomes than men, especially after menopause. Few studies have focused on female-specific mechanisms, other than hormones. We investigated the role of the blood protein VTN (vitronectin) after ischemic stroke in mice. Methods- Adult male and female VTN knockout and wild-type littermates and C57BL/6 mice received a middle cerebral artery occlusion and the injured brain tissue analyzed 24 hours to 3 weeks later for cell loss and inflammation, as well as neurological function. Blood VTN levels were measured before and after stroke. Results- Intravenously injected VTN leaked extensively from bloodstream into brain infarct and penumbra by 24 hours after stroke. Strikingly, VTN was detrimental in female, but not male, mice, as shown by reduced brain injury (26.2±2.6% versus 13.4±3.8%; =0.018; n=6 and 5) and forelimb dysfunction in female VTN knockout mice. Stroke increased plasma VTN 2- to 8-fold at 24 hours in females (36±4 versus 145±24 μg/mL; 0.99; n=10 and 7), and returned to control levels by 7 days. Individually variable VTN levels at 24 hours correlated with stroke-induced brain injury at 7 days only in females. VTN promoted stroke-induced microglia/macrophage activation and leukocyte infiltration in females. Proinflammatory IL (interleukin)-6 greatly increased in the striatum at 24 hours in wild-type mice but was increased ≈60% less in female (739±159 versus 268±111; =0.02; n=7 and 6), but not male (889±178 versus 1179±295; =0.73; n=10 and 11), knockout mice. In individual wild-type females, plasma VTN levels correlated with striatal IL-6 expression at 24 hours. The female-specific effect of VTN-induced IL-6 expression following stroke was not due to gonadal hormones, as shown by ovariectomy and castration. Lastly, intrastriatal injection of IL-6 in female mice immediately before stroke reversed the VTN knockout phenotypes of reduced brain injury and microglia/macrophage activation. Conclusions- VTN plays a novel sexually dimorphic detrimental pathophysiological role in females and might ultimately be a therapeutic target to improve stroke outcomes in women.