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Body fluid status assessment by bio-impedance analysis in patients presenting to the emergency department with dyspnea.

Body fluid status assessment by bio-impedance analysis in patients presenting to the emergency department with dyspnea.
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Park CS, Lee SE, Cho HJ, Kim YJ, Kang HJ, Oh BH, Lee HY,


Park CS, Lee SE, Cho HJ, Kim YJ, Kang HJ, Oh BH, Lee HY, (click to view)

Park CS, Lee SE, Cho HJ, Kim YJ, Kang HJ, Oh BH, Lee HY,

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The Korean journal of internal medicine 2017 12 18() doi 10.3904/kjim.2016.358
Abstract
Background/Aims
Fluid retention occurs in patients with heart failure, accounting for dyspnea. We investigated the diagnostic implication of body fluid status, assessed by bio-impedance analysis (BIA), in acute heart failure (AHF) among patients who presented with dyspnea.

Methods
A total of 100 patients who presented with dyspnea and suspected with AHF were analyzed in this study. We enrolled 50 AHF and 50 non-AHF patients discriminated through echocardiographic analysis and Framingham criteria and were matched by age and sex. Body composition was analyzed using a multifrequency BIA.

Results
AHF patients demonstrated higher extracellular water (ECW)/total body water (TBW) compared with non-AHF patients (0.412 ± 0.017 vs. 0.388 ± 0.023, p < 0.001). A significant difference of ECW/TBW between AHF patients and nonAHF patients was noted when the upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities were analyzed (all p < 0.001, respectively). ECW/TBW was not different between patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF) and preserved EF along body compartments. The best cut-off value to predict AHF was > 0.412 at lower extremities with sensitivity and specificity of 0.780 and 0.960. The ECW/TBW of the lower extremities (ECW/TBWL) was correlated with log B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (r = 0.603, p < 0.001) and also improved the net reclassification improvement and integrated discriminated improvement when added to log BNP level. Multivariate analysis revealed that ECW/TBWL > 0.412 had an independent association with AHF patients (p = 0.011).

Conclusions
The ECW/TBWL was higher in patients with dyspnea caused by AHF than their counterparts and demonstrated an independent diagnostic implication. It may be a promising marker to diagnose AHF at bedside.

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