A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, and Scopus was performed for articles that contained the terms “Bouveret syndrome,” “Bouveret’s syndrome,” “gallstone” AND “gastric obstruction” and “gallstone” AND “duodenal obstruction” that were published between January 1, 1950 to April 15, 2018. Articles were reviewed by 3 reviewers and raw data collated. χ and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to test associations between predictors and endoscopic outcomes. A logistic regression model was then used to create a predictive tool which was cross validated.
Failure of endoscopic therapy is associated with increasing gallstone length (P<0.0001) and impaction in the distal duodenum (P<0.05). Using multiple endoscopic modalities is associated with better success rates (P<0.05). The novel predictive tool predicted success of endoscopic therapy with an area under the receiver operating characteristic score of 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.94).
In Bouveret syndrome, a selective approach to endoscopic therapy can expedite definitive treatment and improve current management strategies.