Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is one of the agents causing bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), with single infection tending to be mild to moderate; the probability of developing pneumonia in BRDC may be affected by viral and bacterial combinations. Previously, we reported that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection enhances adherence of Pasteurella multocida (PM) to cells derived from the bovine lower respiratory tract but that BRSV infection in cells derived from the upper respiratory tract reduces PM adherence. In this study, we sought to clarify whether the modulation of bacterial adherence to cells derived from the bovine upper and lower respiratory tract is shared by other BRDC-related viruses by infecting bovine epithelial cells from the trachea, bronchus and lung with BCoV and/or PM. The results showed that cells derived from both the upper and lower respiratory tract were susceptible to BCoV infection. Furthermore, all cells infected with BCoV exhibited increased PM adherence via upregulation of two major bacterial adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R), suggesting that compared with BRSV infection, BCoV infection differentially modulates bacterial adherence. In summary, we identified distinct interaction between bovine respiratory viruses and bacterial infections.
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