Historically, breast cancer has been regarded as an immunogenic “cold” tumor hence it has not experienced the explosion of immunotherapy. However, the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors has made immunotherapy becoming an emerging new treatment modality for breast cancer. This review discusses the immune system, immune features of breast cancer, and the programmed cell death protein-1/programmed cell death protein ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors used in the treatment of breast cancer. High T lymphocyte infiltration and mutation burden were observed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) breast cancer. Increasing breast cancer immunogenicity and modulating the tumor microenvironment has been reported to improve the therapeutic efficacy of immunotherapy. Recent clinical trials involving PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors monotherapy in breast cancer has revealed little efficacy and this highlights the need to develop combinations of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors with chemotherapy, molecularly targeted therapies, and other immunotherapies to maximize the clinical efficacy. In conclusion, the development of a new combined regimen involving PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and the exploration as potential biomarkers is important in breast cancer immunotherapy.
February 10, 2020
July 13, 2020
- ASCO – Lung CancerASCO.20 Virtual Scientific Program, held May 29 - 31, brought professionals from all over the world together to hear the brightest minds in oncology present state-of-the-art treatment modalities and new therapies.
- AACR-2020The American Association for Cancer Research is the world's oldest and largest professional association related to cancer research.
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- ASCO 2019The 2019 ASCO Annual Meeting, taking place May 31-June 4 in Chicago, will bring together more than 32,000 oncology professionals from across the globe. The theme of this year’s conference is Caring for Every Patient, Learning From Every Patient.