All the cases of brucellosis in transplant patients with no time and language limitations were searched and retrieved on May 20, 2020, using the following search keywords: (Brucella OR Brucellosis) AND (Transplant or Transplantation) through the following medical databases: Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and regional databases e.g. SID. All clinical features, including the time of transmission (before, during, and after transplantation), treatment protocols and medications, and patients’ outcomes were investigated.
Fourteen cases reported in 14 studies (out of 777 studies) were retrieved. Kidney (50%), liver (28.5%), and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (14.2%) were the most reported types of transplantation. The presentation of brucellosis in 42.8% of the patients occurred in the early post-transplantation period, whereas 57.1% of the cases presented with late-onset disease.
Brucellosis in transplant recipients seems to be uncommon even in the endemic regions. However, rare cases could be transmitted through bone marrow transplantation and transfusion. Precise screening and meticulous supervision during and after transplantation might lead to a reduction in the frequency of brucellosis.
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