Calcium sensing receptor hyperactivation through viral envelop protein E of SARS CoV2: A novel target for cardio-renal damage in COVID-19 infection.
Over the recent decades, a number of new pathogens have emerged within specific and diverse populations across the globe, namely, the Nipah virus, the Ebola virus, the Zika virus, and coronaviruses (CoVs) to name a few. Recently, a new form of coronavirus was identified in the city of Wuhan, China. Interestingly, the genomic architecture of the virus did not match with any of the existing genomic sequencing data of previously sequenced CoVs. This had led scientists to confirm the emergence of a new CoV strain. Originally, named as 2019-nCoV, the strain is now called as SARS-CoV-2. High serum levels of proinflammatory mediators, namely, interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-1β, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), chemoattractant protein-1, and IFN-inducible protein, have been repeatedly observed in subjects who were infected with this virus. In addition, the virus demonstrated strong coagulation activation properties, leading to further the understanding on the SARS-CoV2. To our understanding, these findings are unique to the published literature. Numerous studies have reported anomalies, namely, decline in the number of lymphocytes, platelets and albumins; and a rise in neutrophil count, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponins, creatinine, complete bilirubin, D-dimers, and procalcitonin. Supplementation of calcium during the SARS CoV-2 associated hyperactive stage of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) may be harmful to the cardio-renal system. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of CaSR may prevent the increase in the levels of intracellular calcium, oxidative, inflammatory stress, and cardio-renal cellular apoptosis induced by high cytokines level in COVID-19 infection.© 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.