Higher fracture risk in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is attributed to disease-specific deficits in micro-structural and material properties of bone, although the primary cause is not yet established. The TallyHO (TH) mouse is a polygenic model of early-onset T2D and obesity analogous to adolescent-onset T2D in humans. Due to incomplete penetrance of the phenotype, ~25% of male TH mice never develop hyperglycemia, providing a strain-matched, non-diabetic control. Utilizing this model of T2D, we examined the impact of glucose-lowering therapy with canagliflozin (CANA) on diabetic bone. Male TH mice with or without hyperglycemia (High BG, Low BG) were monitored from ~8 to 20 weeks of age, and compared to age-matched, male, TH mice treated with CANA from ~8 to 20 weeks of age. At 20 weeks, untreated TH mice with high BG [High BG: 687±106 mg/dL] exhibited lower body mass, decrements in cortical bone of the femur (decreased cross-sectional area and thickness; increased porosity) and in trabecular bone of the femur metaphysis and L6 vertebra (decreased bone volume fraction, thickness, and tissue mineral density), as well as decrements in cortical and vertebral bone strength (decreased yield force and ultimate force) when compared to untreated TH mice with low BG [Low BG: 290±98 mg/dL; p<0.0001]. CANA treatment was metabolically advantageous, normalizing body mass, BG and HbA1c to values comparable to the Low BG group. With drug-induced glycemic improvement, cortical area and thickness were significantly higher in the CANA than in the High BG group, but deficits in strength persisted with lower yield force and yield stress (partially independent of bone geometry) in the CANA group. Additionally, CANA only partially prevented the T2D-related loss in trabecular bone volume fraction. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ability of CANA to lower glucose and normalized glycemic control ameliorates diabetic bone disease but not fully.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.