Prior research suggest gender-specific differences in symptom levels and comorbidity prevalence among patients with COPD. Investigators conducted an analysis to determine whether the relationship between these characteristics is dependent on gender and whether they hold different diagnostic values for cardiac comorbidities. Significantly different values were observed between men and women for most functional parameters of COPD and comorbidities, as well as COPD Assessment Test (CAT) items 1 (cough), 2 (phlegm), and 5 (activities). The relationship between functional parameters and comorbidities versus symptoms showed gender-specific differences, especially for single CAT items. Logistic regression showed that, in men, CAT item 8 (energy), modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale value, smoking status, BMI, age, and spirometric lung function were related with cardiac disease (myocardial infarction, heart failure, or coronary artery disease), whereas only age was predictive of cardiac disease in women.
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