MicroRNA-150 (miR-150) is downregulated in patients with multiple cardiovascular diseases and in diverse mouse models of heart failure (HF). MiR-150 is significantly associated with HF severity and outcome in humans. We previously reported that miR-150 is activated by β-blocker carvedilol (Carv) and plays a protective role in the heart using a systemic miR-150 knockout (KO) mouse model. However, mechanisms that regulate cell-specific miR-150 expression and function in HF are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that novel conditional cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific miR-150 knockout (miR-150 cKO) in mice worsens maladaptive cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis in miR-150 cKO mouse hearts identifies small proline-rich protein 1a (Sprr1a) as a novel target of miR-150. Our studies further reveal that Sprr1a expression is upregulated in CMs isolated from ischemic myocardium and subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion, while its expression is downregulated in hearts and CMs by Carv. We also show that left ventricular SPRR1A is upregulated in patients with HF and that Sprr1a knockdown in mice prevents maladaptive post-MI remodeling. Lastly, protective roles of CM miR-150 are in part attributed to the direct and functional repression of pro-apoptotic Sprr1a. Our findings suggest a crucial role for the miR-150/SPRR1A axis in regulating CM function post-MI.