Fuzi, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine developed from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., has been widely used for the treatment of heart failure. In order to search for active compounds from Fuzi, a phytochemical study was performed, which resulted in the isolation of 14 aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids, including one new compound (1). Their cardioprotective effects against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells were evaluated. All of the alkaloids showed cardioprotective effects in a nonmonotonic concentration-response manner, with the maximum protection rates ranging from 17.96 ± 2.93% to 98.31 ± 0.35%. Compound 5 exhibited the most potent cardioprotective activity. Taking the maximum protection rate as an indicator, the preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that the substitutions of C-1, C-13, C-15, C-16, and N and the configurations of OMe-6 and OH-15 are important structural features for the cardioprotective activities of the aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids.
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