Children suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) have the apparent highest risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at a young age. While symptoms of CVD are characteristically absent in childhood and adolescence, remodeling of the myocardium, medium and large-sized arteries and of the microcirculation is clinically significant and can be assessed with non-invasive technology. Kidney disease and its progression is the driver of CVD, mediated by an unparalleled accumulation of risk factors converging on several comorbid conditions including hypertension, anemia, dyslipidemia, disturbed mineral metabolism and chronic persistent inflammation. Large prospective pediatric cohorts studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis and the progression of CKD-induced cardiovascular comorbidity and have characterized the cardiovascular phenotype in young patients. They have also provided the rationale for close monitoring of risk factors and have defined therapeutic targets. Recently discovered new biomarkers could help identify the individual risk for CVD. Prevention of CVD by aggressive therapy of modifiable risk factors is essential to enable long-term survival of young patients with CKD.
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