Schizophrenia is known to be associated with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk. However, there’s no strong evidence suggesting a clear relationship between these factors. This study aims to evaluate the association between the risk of cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia.
This systematic review and meta-analysis included 27 studies involving 10,174 individuals with schizophrenia. The studies investigated the risk of schizophrenia with cognitive functioning or cardiovascular disease. Random-effects models were used to meta-analyze the data. The primary outcome of the study was global cognition, which was defined as a test score using clinically validated measures.
The findings suggested that the incidence of global cognitive defects was significantly greater in patients with schizophrenia who had metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or hypertension. Non-significantly greater deficits were observed in patients with schizophrenia who had obesity, overweight, and insulin resistance. Among the participants, worse performance in cognitive domains was related to cardiovascular risk and cognitive dysfunction in those who belonged to five domains of diabetes and four domains of metabolic syndrome and hypertension.
The research concluded that metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes were associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular risk and cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.