BMC pregnancy and childbirth 2017 07 2117(1) 238 doi 10.1186/s12884-017-1419-0
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) among healthy, pregnant women attending antenatal care at different study sites in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.
Between 2010 and June 2013, recto-vaginal swab samples were collected from pregnant women attending antenatal care from two study sites in southern Ghana. The samples were collected within 35 and 37 weeks of the gestation period. These were inoculated into Todd-Hewitt broth followed by sub-culturing onto a sheep-blood agar plate. Identification was performed on a single subcultured colony. Gram staining was performed, and isolates were evaluated for beta-haemolytic reactions. Furthermore, the isolates were serotyped using the GBS latex serotyping kit.
The carriage rates were found to be 25.5% (95% CI: 19.6-32.1) to 28.0% (95% CI: 21.9-34.8) for the two collection sites. The most common serotypes were serotypes VII and IX. The data showed that women below 20 years of age or above 30 years of age have a significantly (p = 0.037) higher risk of carrying GBS compared to women from the age group of 20 to 30 years.
The findings of this study revealed that prevalence of GBS colonization in pregnant women in Greater Accra region is high and comparable to rates observed in South Africa and Western countries. The most prevalent serotypes were serotypes VII and IX, which have not been observed before in West Africa.