BMC nephrology 2016 Oct 2617(1) 162
Cardio-Renal Syndromes were first classified in 2008 and divided into five subtypes. The type 1 Cardio-Renal Syndrome (CRS) is characterized by acute decompensation of heart failure leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). Bradyarrhythmia was not mentioned in the classification as a cause for low cardiac output (CO) in type 1 CRS. Besides, CRS was not previously associated with central nervous system (CNS) injury despite the fact that cardiac, renal and neurological diseases can coexist.
We report the case of a 93-year old diabetic man who presented for obnubilation. He had a slow atrial fibrillation, was not hypotensive and was not taking any beta-blocker. He developed, simultaneously, during his hospitalization, severe bradycardia (<35 beats per minute), oligoanuria and further neurological deterioration without profound hypotension. An ECG revealed a complete atrioventricular (AV) block and all his symptoms were completely reversed after pacemaker insertion. His creatinine decreased progressively afterwards and at discharge, he was conscious, alert and well oriented. CONCLUSION
Our case highlights the importance of an early recognition of low cardiac output secondary to severe bradyarrhythmia and its concurrent repercussion on the kidney and the brain. This association of the CRS with CNS injury-that we called "Cardio-Renal-Cerebral Syndrome"-was successfully treated with permanent pacemaker implantation.