We present a rare case of cashew-induced oxalate nephropathy in a 69 year old veteran male with history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, nephrolithiasis, and undiagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oxalate nephropathy is a rare cause of acute renal failure with poor prognosis. The various causes of oxalate nephropathy are categorized as primary or secondary hyperoxaluria. Primary hyperoxaluria is caused by genetic mutation in genes involved in the metabolism of glyoxylate. Secondary hyperoxaluria is caused by mal-absorptive state, excessive intake of oxalate-rich diet, inflammatory diseases, and medications such as orlistat and antibiotics. Diet-induced oxalate nephropathy is often identified after unexplained acute kidney injury in patients with underlying CKD. Definitive diagnosis requires renal biopsy as laboratory tests are non-specific. A simple dietary history in CKD patients during routine primary care visit may lead to early diagnosis and lead to prevention of acute renal failure and progression of renal disease.
Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States 2021. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.