Objective Cataract and chronic kidney disease (CKD) occur with increasing frequency with age and share common risk factors including smoking, diabetes, and hypertension. We evaluated the risk of incident cataract surgery in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD and dialysis-dependent CKD compared to non-CKD patients, while taking into account the competing risk of death. Methods The participants included 1,839 patients from Sado General Hospital enrolled in the Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST) between June 2008 and December 2016 (54% men; mean age, 69 years). Among these patients, 50%, 44%, and 6% had non-CKD, non-dialysis-dependent CKD, and dialysis-dependent CKD, respectively. Results During a median follow-up of 5.6 years (interquartile range, 4.7-7.1), 193 participants underwent cataract surgery [18.7 (95% confidence interval (CI), 16.2 – 21.5)/1,000 person-years] and 425 participants died without undergoing cataract surgery [41.0 (95% CI, 37.4 – 45.2)/1,000 person-years]. The cumulative incidence of cataract surgery was the highest in the dialysis-dependent CKD group, followed by the non-dialysis-dependent CKD and non-CKD groups (log-rank p=0.002). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the dialysis-dependent CKD group (hazard ratio (HR) 2.48; 95% CI 1.43-4.31), but not the non-dialysis-dependent CKD group (HR, 1.01; 95% CI 0.74-1.38), had a higher risk of cataract surgery than the non-CKD group. However, this association was no longer significant according to a competing risk analysis (sub-hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI 0.93-3.03). Conclusion Dialysis-dependent CKD patients were found to have an increased risk of cataract surgery; however, the association was attenuated and no longer significant when death was considered a competing risk.