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CATECHOLAMINERGIC A1/C1 NEURONS CONTRIBUTE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF UPPER AIRWAY MUSCLE TONE BUT MAY NOT PARTICIPATE IN NREM SLEEP-RELATED DEPRESSION OF THESE MUSCLES.

CATECHOLAMINERGIC A1/C1 NEURONS CONTRIBUTE TO THE MAINTENANCE OF UPPER AIRWAY MUSCLE TONE BUT MAY NOT PARTICIPATE IN NREM SLEEP-RELATED DEPRESSION OF THESE MUSCLES.
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Rukhadze I, Carballo NJ, Bandaru SS, Malhotra A, Fuller PM, Fenik VB,


Rukhadze I, Carballo NJ, Bandaru SS, Malhotra A, Fuller PM, Fenik VB, (click to view)

Rukhadze I, Carballo NJ, Bandaru SS, Malhotra A, Fuller PM, Fenik VB,

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Respiratory physiology & neurobiology 2017 07 12() pii S1569-9048(17)30129-5
Abstract

Neural mechanisms of obstructive sleep apnea, a common sleep-related breathing disorder, are incompletely understood. Hypoglossal motoneurons, which provide tonic and inspiratory activation of genioglossus (GG) muscle (a major upper airway dilator), receive catecholaminergic input from medullary A1/C1 neurons. We aimed to determine the contribution of A1/C1 neurons in control of GG muscle during sleep and wakefulness. To do so, we placed injections of a viral vector into DBH-cre mice to selectively express the hMD4i inhibitory chemoreceptors in A1/C1 neurons. Administration of the hM4Di ligand, clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), in these mice decreased GG muscle activity during NREM sleep (F1,1,3=17.1, p<0.05); a similar non-significant decrease was observed during wakefulness. CNO administration had no effect on neck muscle activity, respiratory parameters or state durations. In addition, CNO-induced inhibition of A1/C1 neurons did not alter the magnitude of the naturally occurring depression of GG activity during transitions from wakefulness to NREM sleep. These findings suggest that A1/C1 neurons have a net excitatory effect on GG activity that is most likely mediated by hypoglossal motoneurons. However, the activity of A1/C1 neurons does not appear to contribute to NREM sleep-related inhibition of GG muscle activity, suggesting that A1/C1 neurons regulate upper airway patency in a state-independent manner.

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