Bermuda grass pollen is a common inhaled allergen. This study aimed to investigate the molecular sensitization patterns to major pollen allergens (Bermuda grass, Mugwort, and Timothy grass) and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) in Bermuda grass sensitized patients in southern China.
Serum specific IgE (sIgE) levels of Bermuda grass allergen components (Cyn d 1 and Cyn d 12), Timothy grass allergen components (Phl p 1, Phl p 4, Phl p 5, Phl p 7 and Phl p 12), Mugwort allergen components (Art v 1, Art v 3 and Art v 4) and CCD were detected in 78 patients sensitized to Bermuda grass via EUROBlotMaster system. Compared with CCD-positive patients, those with negative CCD results had significant higher positive rates of Cyn d 1 (47.8% vs 14.5%), Phl p 1 (26.1% vs 7.3%), Phl p 12 (21.7% vs 3.6%) and Art v 4 (26.1% vs 3.6%) (all p < 0.05). Patients < 18 years old had the highest positive rate of Cyn d 1 (40.7%). Additionally, rhinitis patients had the highest positive rate of Cyn d 1 (60.0%), and all patients with Cyn d 12 sensitization (17.2%) were asthmatic patients. Optimal scale analysis showed that Phl p 1 and Cyn d 1 were closely related (Cronbach’s alpha = 85.1%).
The highest positive rate of pollen allergen components was Cyn d 1 in Bermuda grass sensitized patients in southern China. Most patients were sensitized to CCD alone, and CCD may have less interference in the detection of Cyn d 1, Art v 4, Phl p 1, and Phl p 12. The sensitization patterns of pollen allergen components varied in different ages and diseases, and the diagnostic strategy of pollen allergen needs to be considered in the future.