In patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections, the development of CIED-related infective endocarditis and the presence of comorbid conditions appear to increase short- and long-term mortality, according to a Mayo Clinic study. The authors noted that patient age, heart failure, metastatic malignancy, corticosteroid therapy, and renal failure were associated with long-term mortality in patients with CIED infections.

Abstract: American Journal of Cardiology, March 15, 2013.