Malabsorption due to celiac disease (CD) may contribute to postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to survey participants with CD regarding their bone density, fractures, and bone-preserving medications; to compare tolerance of bone-preserving medications in participants with and without CD; and to review the evidence for CD screening and osteoporosis therapies in the setting of CD. We recruited 131 participants with CD and 102 participants without CD. Of those with CD, 87% were diagnosed in adulthood and 40% had no recognized gastrointestinal symptoms. In 21% CD was diagnosed after the diagnosis of osteoporosis and in 9% after a fracture. No difference was found in the tolerability of bone medications between participants with CD and those without. Review of the literature found that, although monitoring of bone health is recommended for patients with CD, screening for CD is not generally accepted for patients with osteoporosis, although studies of the prevalence of CD in osteoporosis had incomplete ascertainment methods. There is a lack of well-conducted studies and therefore insufficient data for the efficacy and tolerability of bone medication in CD. In conclusion, both CD and menopause lead to bone loss. Identifying CD in postmenopausal women should lead to modification of osteoporosis management.